All posts by kim

The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021

Cities are a compelling phenomenon of the current era. The age of globalisation is also an age of globalising cities but the science of cities is only slowly emerging; there is limited understanding of how and why some cities succeed and others fail.

London is a case in question. The success of the 2012 Olympic Games marked a high watermark at the end of two The Making of a World City Imagedecades of evolution and transformation in which London had become one of the most open and cosmopolitan cities in the world, while increasing its influence and soft power in the global systems of trade, capital, culture, knowledge, and communications.

London holds a fascination for other world cities because it appears to be always slightly ahead of the curve, highly adaptable, and almost accidentally successful. What can other cities learn from London? Is London really a success? Or are there problems in store? Can London fix its own problems or is something more required?

In The Making of a World City: London 1991 – 2021 I have sought to draw on over 25 years of experience working within London policy and economic development organisations, and on interviews with around 100 leading thinkers about the past, present and future of London, including commentators and leaders in New York, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Paris, Singapore, and São Paulo. London’s path to becoming a leading world city is not well understood. The assumption is that the Big Bang, London Docklands, the EU, or global finance is the key explanatory factor.

The reality is richer and more surprising. The book sets out in clear detail both the catalysts that have enabled London to succeed and also the qualities and underlying values that are at play: London’s open-ness and self-confidence, its inventiveness, influence, and its entrepreneurial zeal. London’s organic, unplanned, incremental character, without a ruling design code or guiding master plan proves to be more flexible than any planned city can be.

Cities are high on national and regional agendas as we all try to the impact of global urbanisation and the re-urbanisation of the developed world; if we can explain London’s successes and her remaining challenges, we can unlock a better understanding of how cities succeed.

I hope this book will be of interest to people living and working in London, and also to people in other globalising cities that want to understand what the journey of London has been. I am very grateful to all those who made a contribution to this book and to colleagues from near and far who have provided the following supporting comments:-

The future of cities depends on their resilience. London – messy, unplanned, organic and ungovernable – has become a model of global city resilience. Anyone interested in understanding the complexity of cities should read this book.

Prof Ricky Burdett, Professor of Urban Studies, LSE, Director, LSE Cities and Urban Age

In this revealing book, Greg Clark has consulted an impressive array of international commentators and city experts to explain London’s evolving story as a leading world city. Most importantly, Clark highlights the need for deeper reforms of city governance and city finances if London is to keep pace with its competitors and combine liveability with opportunity.

Prof Rosemary Scanlon, Dean, Shack Institute of Real Estate, New York University

London has captured the world’s imagination as a center for financial, business, cultural, and social development. Greg Clark has drawn on his own vast experience and that of leading experts to write a must-read assessment one of the world’s most important cities.

Prof Michael J. Enright; Sun Hung Kai Professor, University of Hong Kong

The emerging world cities need to know the secrets and the challenges of London, New York, Paris and Tokyo. This books helps us to see London from the inside out, and it explains very clearly how London became a leading world city.

Prof Miguel Bucalem, Director, Centre for Cities, University of Sao Paulo.

London’s rebirth as a leading World City is indeed a major strategic achievement. Greg Clark’s remarkable and positive account of this story gives food for thought to other global cities, such as Paris, who are following a different -less business focused and more citizen oriented- path.

Paul Lecroart, Senior Urban Planner, Paris Region Planning Agency (IAU îdf)

Moscow’s role as a global hub of business and finance is evolving in ways which understand that culture, higher education, and international promotion are critical ingredients for success. The London story, as told by Greg Clark, reinforces these messages and shows how former Imperial Cities can become great world cities in the modern age.

Prof Andrei Sharonov, Dean, Skolkovo Business School, Former Deputy Mayor of Moscow, Chairman of Moscow Urban Forum.

As Barcelona continues on its path towards to being a global city in Europe, lessons from London become increasingly more interesting and relevant. This book reveals London’s formula for global success in ways which educate and entertain.

Mateu Hernandez, CEO, Barcelona Global.

In this book Greg Clark tells the remarkable story of how London reinvented itself over the past quarter century, making it, along with New York, one of the world’s two leading centers of commerce, finance, communications and innovation.

Prof Bob Yaro, President, Regional Plan Association of New York.

Clark tells a fascinating story – how on old and seemingly tired global city got a new lease of life – extremely well.

Ben Rogers, Director, Centre for London.

Book Flyer.  This book can be purchased through Wiley or Amazon


OECD Local Economic Leadership

OECD leadership paper published

A new OECD paper on successful local economic leadership, co-authored by The Business of Cities’ Greg Clark, Tim Moonen and Emily Moir and the OECD’s Debra Mountford, was launched at Manchester Town Hall on June 25th at the 11th Annual OECD

The paper features latest insights and case studies from Amsterdam, Hamburg, Manchester and Stockholm. Click image to open paper.


World Cities and Nation States

Moscow Urban Forum has published new research by The Business of Cities on the dynamic relationships between world

cities and their national governments. Entitled ‘World Cities and Nation States: Promoting a New Deal for the 21st Century’, this groundbreaking report sheds new light on the way political systems in 12 world cities are beginning to adapt to the urban age.

Click image to view report

The Urban Innovation Economy

Greg Clark and Tim Moonen produce a new report addressingTechnology Real Estate and the Innovation Economy image the issue of how the real estate industry must adapt and meet the demands of the new normal – sustainable spaces in which to create innovation through knowledge, science, culture, and creativity whilst enhancing quality of life.

ULI Density Report

copy title

The Business of Cities’ Emily Moir and Greg Clark have published an important new report on city density on behalf of ULI. The paper breaks new ground in unpacking the different meanings and scales of density, and the opportunities for future densification in cities.  To view report click image.


The Future of Cities Global Review

The UK Government’s Foresight Future of Cities project has published new work by The Business of Cities on how the world is thinking about the future of cities. This report breaks new ground in showing how nations, cities, and supra-national bodies are learning different lessons from previous cycles of urbanisation, and preparing in innovative ways for an urban future. Click image to view.

Urban Age: Underpowered Cities

The Business of Cities contributes to the latest annual LSE Urban LSE LogoAge newspaper, whose theme is ‘Governing Urban Futures’. This new essay highlights the leadership and governance deficits that have emerged at the urban level in the new century of cities. It reviews the latest coalitions, adaptations and reforms taking place in cities worldwide to respond to these deficits. Click image to view report